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President Hu Jintao arrived at Phnom Penh on Friday to strengthen ties between the nations, just days before Cambodia hosts a regional summit.
It is the first state visit paid by a Chinese head of state to Cambodia in the last 12 years.
In a written speech delivered upon his arrival, Hu said that China and Cambodia are traditional neighbors of friendship, stressing that "the good-neighborly ties of friendship between the two countries are forged and carefully nurtured by the older generations of leaders", and "have withstood the test of time and international vicissitudes and moved forward steadily".
According to his schedule, Hu will meet Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni, President Chea Sim of the Senate, President Heng Samrin of the National Assembly and Prime Minister Hun Sen.
After recently attending a nuclear security summit in Seoul and a gathering of emerging economies in New Delhi, Hu is expected to sign a number of cooperation agreements with Cambodia before leaving on Monday.
China is Cambodia's biggest foreign investor, with hundreds of Chinese companies pumping billions of dollars into the nation in recent years for key infrastructure projects such as hydropower dams and coal power plants.
Staff sort out press cards in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on Friday. The Southeast Asian country will host the 20th ASEAN Summit on Tuesday and Wednesday. Zhao Yusi / Xinhua