With an area of 17,075,400 sq.km, RUSSIA (THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, RF) is the largest country in the world. According to its constitution, Russia is a democratic federation. Its capital is Moscow and the monetary unit is Rouble.
The head of state is the President of the Russian Federation (currently D. A. Medvedev), and is elected every 6 years. The President is also the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The Russian national legislature is the Federal Assembly (the Parliament of the Russian Federation) made up of two houses: the Federation Council and the State Duma. The executive power is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Russia's main political parties include United Russia, Fair Russia, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. The official language is Russian.
Russia (the Russian Federation) consists of 89 equal-right subjects (regions), including 21 autonomous republics, six territories, 49 regions, 10 autonomous areas, one autonomous region and two cities with a federal status (Moscow and St. Petersburg). In 2003, the national power system was reformed to reinforce the central power, to this end seven federal districts headed by the President's political representatives were established.
Russia shares land borders with Norway and Finland in the northwest, with Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Byelorussia in the west, with Ukraine in the southwest, and with Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the south.
The Russian Federation ranks No. 1 worldwide in natural gas reserves, No. 1 explored iron ore reserves, No. 2 in production, and No. 3 in coal reserves. Russian forest resources are the largest worldwide.
On June 12, 1990 the First Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) declared the state sovereignty of Russia.