Full text of White Paper on Arms Control
V. Actively Participating in International Non-Proliferation Efforts
Preventing the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery is the common task of the international community. China firmly opposes the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery and has actively participated in international non-proliferation process. China has joined all international treaties and relevant organizations in the field of non-proliferation, and has maintained active exchanges and cooperation with other countries and relevant multinational export control mechanisms. China has actively participated in the diplomatic efforts of the international community to address relevant non-proliferation issues, working to promote resolution of such issues by peaceful means through dialogues and cooperation.
Fulfilling International Obligations of Non-Proliferation
Since joining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1992, China has faithfully honored all its obligations and dedicated itself to maintaining and enhancing the universality, effectiveness and authority of the NPT. China remains committed to promoting the three goals of the NPT, namely, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, nuclear disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
China joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1984. In 1988, China signed the Agreement Between the People's Republic of China and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in China, and voluntarily placed its civilian nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards. China signed with the IAEA the Protocol Additional to the IAEA Safeguards Agreement in 1998, and in early 2002 formally completed the domestic legal procedures necessary for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol, thus becoming the first nuclear-weapon state to complete the relevant procedures.
In November 1991, the Chinese government announced that it would, on a continuing basis, notify the IAEA of China's export to or import from non-nuclear-weapon states of any nuclear material of over one effective kilogram. In July 1993, China formally undertook that it would voluntarily notify IAEA of all its import and export of nuclear material as well as its export of nuclear equipment and related non-nuclear material. In May 1996, China pledged not to provide assistance, including nuclear export and personnel and technical exchanges and cooperation, to nuclear facilities of non-nuclear-weapon states not under the IAEA safeguards. At present, acceptance of the IAEA full-scope safeguards by importing countries has been set by China as the precondition for nuclear export.
China attaches great importance to the key role of the CWC in preventing proliferation of chemical weapons. China has promulgated a series of laws and regulations and adopted relevant control lists, which constitute a whole set of effective control mechanism covering production, sales, use, export and import of scheduled chemicals of the CWC. China has kept close contact with other States Parties to the CWC on export and import of scheduled chemicals, verifying and clarifying its export and import data in a timely manner and strictly implementing the provisions of the CWC on transferring scheduled chemicals to non-states parties.
China strictly fulfills its obligation under the BWC and has promulgated a series of laws and regulations to exercise strict control over export of dual-use biological agents and related equipment and technologies.
Developing Relations with Multinational Export Control Mechanisms
China values the important role of the multinational export control mechanisms in the field of non-proliferation. China has conducted active dialogues and exchanges with these mechanisms, learning from and drawing on their useful experience and practices for its own reference.
In October 1997, China joined the Zangger Committee. In June 2004, China joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group and is now managing export control in strict accordance with the rules and list of the Group.
In February and May 2004, China held two rounds of dialogues with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in Paris and Beijing respectively, exchanging views on export control regimes, control lists and law-enforcement in the missile field as well as China's membership in the MTCR. In September 2004, China officially submitted its application for membership of the MTCR.
China also keeps contacts and exchanges with the Australia Group. The two sides held two rounds of consultations in March 2004 and March 2005 respectively, during which views were exchanged on the non-proliferation situation in the biological and chemical field, implementation of the CWC and the BWC, operation of the Australia Group and China's non-proliferation policy and export control measures.
In April 2004 and May 2005, China held two rounds of dialogues with the Wassenaar Arrangement in Vienna, exchanging views on the principles of export control on conventional weapons and related dual-use items and technologies, the control list and "the best practice." The two sides agreed to hold regular dialogues in the future.
Conducting Exchanges and Cooperation on Non-Proliferation
China attaches importance to and actively participates in bilateral exchanges and cooperation on non-proliferation, whereby it is able to draw on the useful experience and practices of other countries in this field. China has maintained consultations and exchanges with Australia, France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russia, the UK, the US and the EU. In December 2004, China and the EU signed the Joint Declaration on Non-Proliferation and Arms Control, in which the two sides confirm that China and the EU are major strategic partners in the fields of disarmament and non-proliferation, and define the priority areas for cooperation in this regard. China has also, in strict compliance with its non-proliferation policies and export control laws and regulations, worked with relevant countries to crack down on proliferation activities through information exchange and law-enforcement cooperation.
China supports the role of relevant regional organizations and mechanisms in the field of non-proliferation, and has participated in relevant exchanges and dialogues in a constructive manner, exploring effective ways to address non-proliferation issues at the regional level. China has participated in the initiatives of the ARF to strengthen non-proliferation efforts. China will, in cooperation with the US and Singapore, hold an ARF seminar on non-proliferation in 2006. China is ready to keep contact and coordination with other parties to jointly promote the regional non-proliferation process.
Promoting the Important Role of the UN
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China supports the important role played by the UN in the field of non-proliferation in further consolidating international consensus and deepening international cooperation.
In early 1992, the UN Security Council issued a Presidential Statement, defining the proliferation of WMD as a threat to international peace and security. China played a constructive role in drafting the Statement.
In April 2004, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1540 unanimously.
As the first resolution specifically on non-proliferation adopted by the
Security Council, it is conducive to promoting and enhancing international
cooperation on the basis of existing international laws, and to properly
addressing the problem of acquisition and trafficking of WMD, their means of
delivery and the related materials by non-state actors. China actively
participated in the consultations on the Resolution, put forward many
constructive proposals and made important contributions to its adoption. In
October 2004, China submitted its national report on implementation of the
Resolution in accordance with the provisions of the Resolution, which introduced
in detail measures taken by the Chinese government to prevent and combat
proliferation activities by non-state actors in the areas of legislation,
law-enforcement and international cooperation.
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