Full text of White Paper on Arms Control
II. China's Basic Policy and Position
China pursues an independent foreign policy of peace, follows the road of peaceful development, works hard to integrate the efforts to safeguard its own national interests and promote common interests of all countries, and strives for a constructive role in international affairs.
In the field of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, China follows the new security concept featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and commits itself to creating a favorable international and regional security environment, maintaining world peace and promoting common development.
In handling affairs related to international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, the Chinese government always bases its policy-making on the judgment whether it serves to safeguard national sovereignty and security, whether it serves to maintain global strategic stability and whether it serves to promote security for all and mutual trust among countries.
Complete Prohibition and Thorough Destruction of WMD
It is the shared aspiration of the international community as well as the goal of China to thoroughly destroy nuclear weapons and free the world from such weapons.
The end of the Cold War and the new security situation have made possible the substantial reduction of nuclear weapons, and then complete prohibition and thorough destruction of such weapons. Pushing forward nuclear disarmament process is of great significance to reducing the danger of nuclear proliferation, improving international security environment and promoting world peace and development.
China maintains that nuclear-weapon states should take the following measures to further promote nuclear disarmament process.
* An international legal instrument on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons should be concluded at an early date.
* Nuclear disarmament should be a just and reasonable process of gradual reduction toward a downward balance. The two countries possessing the largest nuclear arsenals bear special and primary responsibilities for nuclear disarmament. They should earnestly comply with the treaties already concluded on reduction of nuclear weapons and further reduce their nuclear arsenals in a verifiable and irreversible manner so as to create conditions for achieving the ultimate goal of complete and thorough nuclear disarmament.
* Before the goal of complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons is achieved, nuclear-weapon states should commit themselves to no first use of nuclear weapons and undertake unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones.
* Nuclear-weapon states should abandon the policies of nuclear deterrence based on the first use of nuclear weapons and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in their national security.
* Nuclear disarmament measures, including intermediate measures, should follow the guidelines of maintaining global strategic balance and stability and undiminished security for all.
* The CD should reach an agreement on program of work soon so as to begin at an early date negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) and to establish Ad Hoc Committees and start substantive work on such issues as nuclear disarmament and security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon states.
China stands for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of biological and chemical weapons and firmly opposes proliferation of such weapons.
Against the backdrop of increased threat of bio-terrorism and prominence of bio-security issue, it is of great realistic significance to continue to explore and formulate measures to strengthen the effectiveness of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) under the framework of this Convention. China holds that the international community should take the following actions.
* Encourage more countries to accede to the BWC and urge all its States Parties to fulfill their obligations in a comprehensive and faithful manner.
* Maintain and facilitate the multilateral process aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the BWC and explore and formulate concrete measures through full consultations.
* Encourage more countries to submit to the UN declarations on confidence-building measures regarding the BWC.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is the first international legal instrument for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of a whole category of WMD with strict verification mechanism. It has set a successful example for multilateral arms control and non-proliferation efforts. To ensure full implementation of the CWC, China maintains:
* Chemical weapon possessors should double their efforts to complete the destruction of their chemical weapons at an early date in strict accordance with the CWC and subject themselves to effective supervision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).
* It is imperative to further improve and optimize verification measures, allocate inspection resources in a fair and equitable manner and improve its cost-effectiveness.
* Continuously promote the universality of the CWC.
* The country concerned should fulfill its obligations under the Convention and honor its commitments, start at an early date the substantive destruction process for the chemical weapons it abandoned in China so as to destroy those weapons completely and thoroughly as soon as possible.
Preventing the Proliferation of WMD and Their Means of Delivery
Proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery is conducive neither to world peace and stability nor to China's security. China firmly opposes proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery. China believes that proliferation of WMD has complicated root causes. In order to prevent their proliferation, an integrated approach must be adopted to address both the symptoms and the root causes.
* All states should devote themselves to building a global security environment of cooperation and mutual trust, seeking universal improvement of international relations and achieving security for all. This is the best way to eliminate the danger of proliferation as well as the prerequisite for a smooth non-proliferation process.
* All states should resort to political and diplomatic means to solve the proliferation problem. Non-proliferation means should help maintain and promote international security. Proper solutions to proliferation issues should be sought out through dialogue instead of confrontation, and through cooperation instead of pressuring.
* Full scope should be given to the central role of the UN and other international organizations. The existing non-proliferation mechanism should be strengthened and improved under the framework of international law and on the basis of equal and universal participation of all countries and democratic decision-making.
* A balance should be struck between non-proliferation and peaceful uses. The legitimate rights of each state to peaceful uses should be guaranteed while proliferation activities under the pretext of peaceful uses be prevented.
China views and handles missile defense issues from the perspective of maintaining global strategic balance and stability and safeguarding regional peace and security. China understands the security concerns of relevant countries about the proliferation of ballistic missiles and their technology and stands for political and diplomatic solution to this matter. Research, development and deployment of missile defense systems are by no means an effective way to solve the problem. China does not wish to see a missile defense system produce negative impact on global strategic stability, bring new unstable factors to international and regional peace and security, erode trust among big powers, or undermine legitimate security interests of other countries. China is even more reluctant to see some countries cooperate in the missile defense field to further proliferate ballistic missile technology. China believes that relevant countries should increase transparency in their missile defense program for the purpose of deepening trust and dispelling misgivings.
As the Taiwan question involves its core interests, China opposes the attempt by any country to provide help or protection to the Taiwan region of China in the field of missile defense by any means.
Preventing Weaponization of and an Arms Race in Outer Space
Outer space is the common wealth of mankind. At present, the danger of weaponization of outer space is increasing with each passing day. Taking weapons into outer space will lead to an arms race there and make it a new arena for military confrontation. Such a prospect is not in the interest of any country.
China has all along stood for peaceful use of outer space. The existing international legal instruments on outer space cannot effectively prevent weaponization of and an arms race in outer space. The international community should take effective preventive measures, negotiate and conclude relevant international legal instrument to prohibit deployment of weapons in outer space and the threat or use of force against objects in outer space so as to ensure that outer space is used purely for peaceful purposes.
Addressing Humanitarian Concerns in the Arms Control Field
China is committed to properly addressing humanitarian issues in the arms control field. It holds that while humanitarian concerns are addressed, full consideration should be given to the legitimate military security needs of sovereign states as well as economic and technological capacities of all countries. As the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) accommodates both humanitarian concerns and legitimate military needs, all States Parties should implement the CCW in good faith and constantly enrich and improve it if situation requires.
Firmly combating illegal activities in the field of small arms and light
weapons (SALW) is of great importance to maintaining regional peace, stability
and development, fighting terrorism and cracking down upon such transnational
organized crimes as drug-trafficking and smuggling. China stands for greater
efforts at the national, regional and international levels to seek a
comprehensive solution in this regard.
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