Investors encouraged to buy big state firms
( 2003-11-12 15:19) (chinadaily.com.cn and Agencies)
China is accelerating selling of tens of thousands of state-owned firms, and recently has decided to let foreign and private investors buy majority stakes in large enterprises.
A State Council minister confirmed the policy shift - from state ownership to private ownership -- during a news conference on Tuesday in Beijing, citing a decision by the Chinese Communist Party's powerful Central Committee last month that used stronger language to encourage the transfer of state-owned factories and other enterprises into private hands.
Li Rongrong, minister in charge of the agency that manages all China's state assets, said the government planned to remain in strategic industries critical to the Chinese economy and national security, but added that it was no longer necessary for the state to hold a majority stake in a business to maintain a "controlling, influencing and driving force."
Li said that only "very, very few enterprises" would remain wholly state-owned. He predicted China was entering a "a peak period of mergers and acquisitions" because local governments, which manage about 90 percent of China's state firms, have been granted more authority to dispose of the businesses.
The new push to privatize China's vast and inefficient state industries represents another step by the Chinese Communist Party away from the socialist principles which it set while gaining power in 1949. At present, officials consent to use "ownership transformation" in stead of the one magic word of "privatization."
The privatization campaign also ushers in a new phase in China's transition from a planned economy in which workers were guaranteed employment to a market economy in which they are forced to fend for themselves. As many as 20 million inefficient state workers have lost their jobs in the transition.
The government hopes private owners can help turn around money-losing companies that have been a drain on the nation's booming economy. In addition, some officials have said proceeds from the sales could be used to repair China's tattered social safety net, including under-funded health care, pension and welfare systems.
China began experimenting with privatization in the early 1990s, and the process accelerated after 1997. According to official statistics, the number of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) fell from 262,000 in 1997 to 159,000 last year.
But a "powerful momentum was injected into the process" after China completed a leadership handover in November last year, Li Rongrong said. And on October 14, the Communist Party's Central Committee passed a resolution that quietly called on the party to push ahead with privatization and cleared the way for the sale of medium and large state-owned enterprises. For the first time, the party said it would "vigorously develop a mixed economy" with stock ownership playing a dominant role.
"Before the policy was 'Grasp the Large, Release the Small,' but now the large enterprises can be sold too," said Zhang Wenkui, a researcher in the State Council Development Research Center, which advises the leadership. He said the resolution also opened the door for the state to sell majority stakes in strategic industries.
"This is a major ideological breakthrough. It's essentially a declaration of mass privatization," said Fred Hu, a managing director of the Goldman Sachs investment bank. "In my own discussions with a lot of senior policymakers, my impression is they've made up their mind. The word strategic is becoming less and less meaningful, and the basic approach is, whatever the private sector can do better, the government should get out."
Many localities have moved faster than Beijing and sold large state enterprises under their control. In the southern city of Shenzhen, for example, the government is negotiating to sell a big stake in its water company to the French conglomerate Veolia, formerly known as Vivendi, and in September the city sold a majority stake in a major foodstuffs firm to a Hong Kong company.
Privatization in China has been marked by local corruption and insider deals
in which government officials and factory managers acquire the companies at low
cost. Beijing has ordered all provinces to establish new agencies to monitor
state assets and regulate the process, but some have rushed to sell enterprises
before the regulations can be put in place.
"I think the center has looked at the local experiences and discovered that selling state enterprises doesn't affect the party's political power," Zhang said.
Li said state enterprises must rank in the top three in their industry within two years or face restructuring. "Falling short of the goal will deprive them of the right to say that we need to maintain a controlling force," he said.
In a sign of the government's enthusiasm, China is scheduled to host an international conference on mergers and acquisitions with a U.N. agency next week inside the Great Hall of the People. Li said the government hoped foreign investors would take stakes in state enterprises and bring technology and better management to the companies.
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