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I. Sino-Mongolian Relations in Brief
China and Mongolia share a borderline of 4676 kilometers long. The two countries established diplomatic relations on Oct. 16, 1949. Despite some twists and turns in their relations over the past 50 years since the establishment of their diplomatic relations, neighborliness and friendship have always remained the mainstream of Sino-Mongolian relations. Over the last 10 years in particular, their relations have developed rapidly and made remarkable achievements. In 1994, both sides signed again Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation between China and Mongolia, laying the political and legal foundation for the healthy and steady development of their relations. In December 1998, at the invitation of President Jiang Zemin, President of Mongolia N. Bagabandi paid a state visit to China. Both sides issued Sino-Mongolian joint statement, deciding to establish neighborly, friendly relations and cooperation into the 21st century based on long-term stability, sound trust so as to point out the course for the development of the bilateral relations in the future. In July 1999, President Jiang Zemin was invited to pay a state visit to Mongolia, enriching the meaning of neighborly, friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries. In January 2002, Premier of Mongolia N. Enkhbayar paid an official visit to China, and both sides issued a joint communiqué. In June 2003, President Hu Jintao paid a state visit to Mongolia. Both sides declared to establish neighborly and mutual-trusting partnership between China and Mongolia, and issued a joint statement. Over the recent years, mutually beneficial cooperation has been developing between the two countries, and China is now Mongolia's largest trading partner and investor. Both sides share identical or similar views on many issues in international affairs, support each other and enjoy fruitful cooperation.
As China's important neighbor to its north, and situated between China and Russia, Mongolia enjoys a unique geographic position. For years, the Chinese Government has consistently pursued a neighborly and friendly policy toward Mongolia. It respects independence and sovereignty of Mongolia, the development course chosen the Mongolian people themselves and nuclear-free status upheld by Mongolia.
II. Political Relations
Mongolia is one of the first groups of countries that recognized the People's Republic of China. In 1962, both sides signed Sino-Mongolian Treaty on Friendship and Mutual Assistance, and in 1962, signed Boundary Treaty. In mid and late 1960s, their relations suffered ups and downs. In 1970s, the two countries restored to exchange of ambassadors. In 1980s, their relations saw gradual improvement. In 1989, their state and ruling party (Chinese communist Party and Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) were relations normalized. Since then, their friendly relations and cooperation have consolidated and developed in such areas as the political, economic, cultural, educational and military. In 1990, China and Mongolia issued a joint communiqué, revised Sino-Mongolian Treaty on Friendship and Mutual Assistance in 1994, and signed Friendship and Cooperation Treaty between China and Mongolia based on the previous treaty. Both sides agreed to strengthen and develop friendly relations and cooperation on the basis of the 5 principles of peaceful coexistence.
Following are the Mongolian leaders who have visited China:
Chinese leaders who have visited Mongolia are as follows: Premier Zhou Enlai (in 1954 and 1960), Vice-President Zhu De (in 1956), President Yang Shangkuan (in 1991), Premier Li Peng (1994), Chairman of SC of the NPC Qiao Shi (in 1997), Vice-Premier cum Foreign Minister (in 1997), President Jiang Zemin (in 1999), Member of the SC of PB of Central Committee of the CPC cum Secretary of the Secretariat Wei Jianxin (2000) and President Hu Jintao (in June 2003).
III. Economic/Trade Relations and Economic/Technological Cooperation
In 1951, China and Mongolia established trade relations. In 1989, the two governments set up a committee on economic, trade, scientific and technological cooperation, and 7 meetings have been held. In 1991, the two governments signed a new trade agreement, replacing intergovernmental credit trade with cash trade. In the same year, they signed an investment protection agreement. By the statistics from China's General Administration of Customs, in 2002, Sino-Mongolian trade volume totaled US$ 363 million, of which China's exports accounted for US$ 140 million and its imports US$ 223 million.
On the basis of equality and mutual benefit, China and Mongolia have developed economic and trade cooperation. By statistics from the Mongolian side, up to the end of 2002, there were 825 enterprises with Chinese investment in Mongolia. With its investment exceeding US$ 281 million, China has remained Mongolia's biggest investor, reaching some 40% of Mongolia's total foreign investment. In June 2002, Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Shi Guangsheng visited Mongolia.
Since 1985, the two countries have developed their border trade while developing trade between their governments. Border trade has been conducted between China's Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang Uygur and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regions, Hebei and Jilin Provinces and Mongolia's related regions and departments.
IV. Exchanges and Cooperation in the Cultural, Educational, Scientific and Technological Fields
China and Mongolia have stared cultural exchanges since 1951. Over the recent years, in accordance with the cultural exchange programmes between their governments, the two countries have conducted cultural exchanges and cooperation through many channels and tiers and in various forms. In 1994, Cultural Cooperation Agreement between China and Mongolia was signed. In 1997, Cultural Minister Liu Dezhong visited Mongolia as head of a cultural delegation of the Chinese Government, it is the first visit to Mongolia by China's cultural minister since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. In 1998, Mongolian Minister of Education Saihanbileg visited China as head of the government delegation, and both sides signed 1998-2000 Executive Plan for Sino-Mongolian Cultural Exchanges. In April 1999, Vice-Minister of Culture Ai Qing visited Mongolia as head of the Chinese Cultural Delegation. In April 2001, Assistant Minister of Culture Chang Keren visited Mongolia as head of the Chinese Cultural Delegation, and both sides signed 2001-2003 Executive Plan for Cultural Exchanges and Cooperation. In May 2001, Mongolian Director-General of Radio and Television Ganbold visited China.
In 1987, China and Mongolia restored scientific and technological exchanges suspended for more than the previous 20 years, and signed 1987-1988 Plan for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. In 1989, the sci-tech cooperation delegation of the Mongolian government visited China. Sine then, both sides have regularly held sci-tech cooperation meetings and signed annual sci-tech cooperation programmes. Between the end of Aug. and start of Sept. 1999, President of Chinese Academy of Sciences Lu Yongxiang visited Mongolia as head of the delegation of his academy. In November 2001, Vice-President of this academy visited Mongolia.
China and Mongolia started educational contacts in 1952. Over the years, they have witnessed smooth development in the educational exchanges and cooperation. In 1996, Mongolian Minister of Science and Education Tumur-Ochir visited China, and both sides signed 1996-2000 Educational Exchanges and Cooperation Programme between China and Mongolia. In 1998, China and Mongolia signed Agreement on Mutual Recognition of Academic Degrees and Credentials between the Governments of the People's Republic of China and Mongolia. In 2000, they signed the Executive Programme on the Project for Helping the Mongolian Students Studying in China with Chinese Free Loan. Between 2002 and 2003, Mongolia sent to China 180 trainees and student while China had 15 trainees for further studies in Mongolia and a teacher for teaching Chinese. In May 2002, Vice-Minister of Education Zhang Tianbao visited Mongolia.
V. Other Relations
Along with the development of the bilateral relations, consular relations have also developed between the two countries. In 1986, the two governments signed in Beijing Consular Treaty between China and Mongolia. In 1990, Mongolia reopened its consulate-general in Hohhot. In 1996, the Office of Mongolia's Hohhot Consulate-General in Eren Started working. In 1997, the two countries signed the Agreement on Mongolia retaining its honorary consulate in Hong Kong Special Administration of China between the Governments of the People's Republic of China and Mongolia. At present, diplomatic, official and service passport holders are exempted from visas between the two countries. Development of Sino-Mongolian consular relations has played an active part in promoting economic and trade contacts and personnel exchanges between the two countries.
In 1991, China and Mongolia signed the Agreement on Border Ports and Their Management System between the Governments of the People's Republic of China and People's Republic of Mongolia. At present, both sides have 11 pairs of ports opened, of which China's Eren and Mongolia's Zamyn-Uud are open all year round and rest are only open in certain seasons.
There are now regular flights between Ulan Bator and Beijing opened by both sides. Mongolia has opened regular flights between Ulan Bator and Hohhot.
VI. Major Bilateral Agreements
1. The Boundary Treaty between the People's Republic of China and People's Republic of Mongolia (signed on Dec. 26, 1962)
2. The Consular Treaty between the People's Republic of China and People's Republic of Mongolia (signed on Aug. 9, 1986)
3. The Treaty on Friendly Relations and Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and Mongolia (signed on April 29, 1994).