Six million census takers have fanned out across China to conduct the country's sixth national census, the world's largest. For the first time, foreigners who live and work in China, as well as the populations of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, will be included in the count. The last census, conducted in 2000, reported a total population of 1.3 billion people.
Other countries such as the United States have also conducted a census this year, while Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia will conduct their next census in 2011. Since China continues its rise as a world power, it is not surprising that its census has attracted media attention around the world. In Canada, home to a significant number of residents who are of Chinese descent or were born in China, the national media have published a series of articles on China's latest census initiative.
A major change in China's current census is that, for the first time, the population will be counted on the basis of where people live rather than on their hukou (house registration), or registration, status. The census will collect information on the size, geographic location and socioeconomic characteristics of China's population, including their education, family history, employment and resident status.
Although there are other national surveys and local sources of data on the Chinese population, the census is unique in that it provides complete and comparable data for all parts of China, and the data will be available at the local neighborhood, or community, level.
At a time of rapid economic growth and social change, the census will provide a much needed, up-to-date portrait of China's diverse population and how it is changing. An accurate and complete count will provide a benchmark for measuring change over time using future censuses.
Census information is very useful to all segments of a society. First and foremost, it provides citizens with a portrait of their country and how it is evolving during a time of rapid social and economic change. Data will be useful to the national, regional and local governments as they plan for new health and social service programs and infrastructure projects or modify existing ones.
For example, census information provides detailed data on the size and location of the child population to help determine the need for new schools and other educational facilities.
Data also will be available on the rapidly aging Chinese population to support the development of senior services for this population group. Updated information on workers will support its rapid economic expansion.