WJS: Good marks for China's WTO obligations
By Murray Hiebert (The Wall Street Journal)
Updated: 2005-11-28 13:55
Four years after China joined the World Trade Organization, foreign companies
give Beijing a fairly positive report card for moves such as cutting tariffs and
opening up financial services -- but they say there is a lot left to do in other
China's imports have surged since the country joined the trade body in
December 2001 and opened its markets. US exports to China last year were up more
than 80% from 2001. Companies abroad anticipate more benefits when China phases
in additional market openings, particularly in services, in the next year.
Still, foreign companies in China continue to face some major challenges.
Many of their complaints focus on rampant violations of intellectual-property
rights, restrictions on distribution and a lack of transparency in regulations.
China's exports to the US, by value, are six times as great as its imports from
America and are expected to create a trade imbalance this year of $200 billion.
WTO member countries will open a crucial meeting in Hong Kong on December 13,
shortly after the fourth anniversary of China's entry. The session, ending
December 18, will try to jump-start the so-called Doha round on trade
liberalization launched in late 2001 that has stalled largely because of
differences between developed countries over agricultural subsidies.
While no country is expected to be singled out for criticism, the gathering
in Hong Kong is likely to put a spotlight on China's performance in meeting its
WTO obligations. Until this year, foreign business groups have generally praised
China's efforts, but in recent months some, such as the Washington-based US
Chamber of Commerce, have stepped up criticism and called on Beijing to move
Chinese officials say they have done fairly well in meeting WTO obligations.
They say they have amended 2,000-plus laws and regulations and abolished more
than 800 others to comply with WTO rules.
Zhang Hanlin, a Chinese academic who advises the government on trade issues,
gives China a grade of 95% for overall WTO compliance, though only an 80% for
its protection of intellectual property.
Foreign companies also give China good marks in several areas:
Tariffs. Beijing cut its import tariffs to an average of 9.4% this year from
15.3% in early 2001. Tariffs on information-technology products, including
computers and telecommunications gear, have fallen to zero from 13.3% over the
Financial services. Since December 2004, Beijing has opened up 18 cities to
local-currency operations by foreign banks -- some ahead of its WTO schedule.
The government is due to lift remaining restrictions on foreign banks doing yuan
transactions next month. Foreign banks complain, however, that China's
high-capitalization requirements create an investment barrier.
Insurance. Foreign-invested insurance companies say they are selling more
health, group and pension insurance policies to Chinese clients since Beijing
lifted many earlier restrictions last December. But these companies say they are
hobbled in their expansion efforts because Chinese rules require them to get
approval to open new offices one at a time, instead of concurrently as with
Government procurement. Beijing agreed this year to begin talks on joining
the WTO Government Procurement Agreement, which would grant foreign companies
nondiscriminatory access to government purchases. Currently, Chinese "government
agencies are required to purchase equipment and technology from Chinese-owned
companies, unless no commercially viable alternative exists," the 2005 position
paper of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China indicated.
In other important areas, foreign companies and governments say Beijing's
execution of its WTO commitments is patchy. Myron Brilliant, head of the Asia
division of the US Chamber of Commerce, has called China's implementation
efforts this year "a mixed bag. Progress didn't go as far as it should have."
Sectors where foreign companies would like to see more improvement from
Intellectual property. The US Chamber of Commerce said in a recent report
that "China's IPR [intellectual-property rights] enforcement remains wholly
inadequate and is the most visible area of WTO noncompliance." The report said
70% of pirated goods seized at US borders in the first half of the year
originated from the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong. US and European companies
lose billions of dollars a year from piracy of such goods as computer software,
pharmaceuticals, electronics, movies, clothing and car parts, say foreign-trade
In joining the WTO, China pledged to significantly reduce the levels of
counterfeiting and piracy before 2005, and Chinese officials regularly assure
Washington they will step up antipiracy efforts. But foreign companies say China
could do much more; of some 2,000 administrative enforcement cases dealt with by
authorities in the eastern province of Jiangsu last year, only two were
transferred to courts for criminal investigation, according to the US Chamber
Mr. Zhang, the government adviser and head of the China Institute for WTO
Studies at Beijing-based University of International Business, says that while
Beijing's protection of intellectual property has improved in recent years, one
problem is that responsibilities are currently divided among too many
Distribution rights. The implementation of distribution rights for foreign
companies is "disappointingly slow and characterized by vague and overly
restrictive rules," the American Chamber of Commerce in China said in a recent
report. Regulations governing direct selling by companies such as Amway Corp,
the US cosmetics and soap marketer, were finally issued this month, 11 months
after they were due under China's WTO obligations.
Government transparency. Foreign firms say Beijing frequently publicizes
regulations right before they take effect and often without giving them
reasonable opportunity to comment. The companies say it is often hard to get
copies of laws and internal guidelines; in some sectors, such as construction
and parts of the telecommunications industry, regulations effectively block
access by foreign firms.
Standards. Beijing has begun to introduce national technology standards for a
range of products that foreign firms say erect new nontariff barriers in
violation of WTO rules requiring fair competition. They say China is developing
standards that diverge from leading international technologies in such areas as
Internet protocols, mobile communications and data protection.
Foreign companies also complain of some backsliding. For example, Beijing in
April introduced a tariff on imported auto parts for cars assembled in China,
with a rate equivalent to that for fully assembled, imported vehicles.
"This backtracking may indicate that Chinese officials believe they have made
enough significant progress on WTO compliance that they can now yield to
domestic pressures to protect vulnerable industries," the US-China Business
Council, a trade association based in Washington and Beijing, said in a
Write to Murray Hiebert at firstname.lastname@example.org