from Germany, Kissinger's family fled the Nazi persecution
of Jews in 1938. During World War II, he served in Army
intelligence. After the war, he began a sterling academic
career in political science at Harvard University, receiving his
B.A. (1950) and Ph.D
(1954), teaching in the government department (1957-1971),
and directing the university's Defense Studies Program (1958-1969).
In a series of influential books, Kissinger advocated a
hard-nosed, realpolitik approach to cold war diplomacy,
beginning with Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (1957).
Kissinger served in foreign policy advisory positions for the Eisenhower,
Kennedy and Johnson administrations, but his greatest influence
came under Nixon and Ford. As Nixon's top national security adviser,
he guided Vietnam policy through the "Vietnamization"
campaign, the invasions of Cambodia and Laos, and the negotiations
with North Vietnam which led to the 1973 cease-fire and American
withdrawal. Kissinger shared the Nobel Peace
Prize for his role in those negotiations, a highly controversial
award considering his aggressive stance through most of the war.
Kissinger also promoted the policy of detente
with China and the Soviet Union which led to Nixon's historic visits
there in 1972. Nixon made Kissinger his Secretary of State in 1973,
a position he maintained through the Ford Administration. Since
1976, he has continued writing and consulting on foreign policy
of Jews: 对犹太人得迫害
Army intelligence: 军队的情报部门
B.A: Bachelor of Arts 文学学士
Ph.D: Doctor of Philosophy 博士
a hard-nosed, realpolitik approach:
the Nobel Peace Prize: 诺贝尔和平奖