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Early Development from Three Kingdoms to the Yuan
( 2003-07-21 19:03) (chinadaily.com.cn)

In 230, King Sun Quan of the Kingdom of Wu sent 10,000 troops, led by generals Wei Wen and Zhuge Zhi, to Yizhou (Taiwan). Their starting point was Piling (near present-day Changzhou). This is the earliest historical record of large-scale mainland exploration of Taiwan.

From 607 to 610 Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty dispatched three squads of envoys from Yi'an Prefecture (near present-day Shantou) to Taiwan. The first group was led by cavalry commandant, Zhu Kuan, and marine commandant, He Man. They had been commissioned to search for tribes living outside the mainland. They arrived in Liuqiu (present-day Taiwan) in 607. The second year, the emperor sent Zhu Kuan to the island to convey his goodwill. In 610, court officials Chen Leng and Zhang Zhenzhou arrived in Liuqiu with more than 10,000 troops.

From the latter period of the Tang Dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), the economic center in the mainland moved southward, and the increasing population along the southeastern coast put great pressure on its farmland. This factor, together with incessant wars, forced many people to migrate to Penghu and Taiwan.

During the Southern Song Dynasty (mid-12th century), the government already had troops garrisoned and civilians living in Penghu. According to the Records of the Tribes, Penghu was under the administration of Jinjiang County, Fujian Province. In 1290 the Yuan Dynasty set up a military inspectorate in Penghu to administer civil affairs in Taiwan and Penghu, which were then under the jurisdiction of Jinjiang, Fujian Province. By that time, Taiwan and Penghu were already formally part of China's administrative area.

Early development of Taiwan began during the Three Kingdoms period. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Sun Quan, ruler of the Kingdom of Wu, dispatched an army to Taiwan in 230 A.D., led by generals Wei Wen and Zhuge Zhi. They brought back to the mainland several thousand local Taiwan residents. This is the earliest record of mainland exploration in Taiwan. During the Sui Dynasty (581-618), Emperor Yangdi sent three groups of envoys to Taiwan, the third in 610, when court officials Chen Leng and Zhang Zhenzhou led an army to Taiwan. They brought back several thousand local residents who settled in Fulushan, Fuzhou. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907), people on the southeastern coast began to migrate to Penghu and Taiwan. Around 1290, the Yuan Dynasty established a military inspectorate to administer civil affairs in Penghu and Taiwan, which were placed under the jurisdiction of Jinjiang County, Fujian Province. During this period, the natives of Taiwan, mainly the Gaoshan ethnic group, lived by primitive farming and fishing.

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