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16th Party Congress Report
Updated: 2007-07-10 13:36

Full text of Jiang Zemin's report at 16th Party congress


I. Work of the Past Five Years and Basic Experience of 13 Years

II. Implement the Important Thought of Three Represents in an All-Round Way

III. Objectives of Building a Well-off Society in an All-Round Way

IV. Economic Development and Restructuring

V. Political Development and Restructuring

VI. Cultural Development and Restructuring

VII. National Defense and Army Building

VIII. "One Country, Two Systems" and Complete National Reunification

IX. The International Situation and Our External Work

X. Strengthen and Improve Party Building


The following is the full text of Jiang Zemin's report delivered at the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) on Nov. 8, 2002, entitled "Build a Well-off Society in an All-Round Way and Create a New Situation in Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics":


Now I would like to make a report to the congress on behalf of the Fifteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

The Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC is the first of its kind held by our Party in the new century. It is a very important congress convened by our Party in the new situation in which we have begun to take the third step of the strategic plan for socialist modernization.

The theme of the congress is to hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, fully act on the important thought of Three Represents, carry forward our cause into the future, keep pace with the times, build a well-off society in an all-round way, speed up socialist modernization and work hard to create a new situation in building socialism with Chinese characteristics.

As human society entered the 21st century, we started a new phase of development for building a well-off society in an all-round way and speeding up socialist modernization. The international situation is undergoing profound changes. The trends toward world multipolarization and economic globalization are developing amidst twists and turns. Science and technology are advancing rapidly. Competition in overall national strength is becoming increasingly fierce. Given this pressing situation, we must move forward, or we will fall behind. Our Party must stand firm in the forefront of the times and unite with and lead the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in accomplishing the three major historical tasks: to propel the modernization drive, to achieve national reunification and to safeguard world peace and promote common development, and in bringing about the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation on its road to socialism with Chinese characteristics. This is a grand mission history and the era have entrusted to our Party.

I. Work of the Past Five Years and Basic Experience of 13 Years

The five years since the Fifteenth National Congress of the CPC have been a period in which we have held high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and kept blazing new trails in a pioneering spirit, and a period in which we have continued to forge ahead triumphantly on the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics in spite of difficulties and risks.

At the Fifteenth National Congress, Deng Xiaoping Theory was established as the Party's guiding ideology, the Party's basic program for the primary stage of socialism was put forward, and the objectives and tasks for China's cross-century development were specified. Acting in the spirit of the congress, the Central Committee held seven plenary sessions at which it made decisions and plans on such major issues as agriculture and rural work, the reform and development of state-owned enterprises, the formulation of the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) and the improvement of the Party's work style. Over the past five years, we have traversed an extraordinary course and scored tremendous achievements in reform, development and stability, domestic and foreign affairs and national defense and in running the Party, state and army.

The national economy has maintained a sustained, rapid and sound development. By pursuing the principle of stimulating domestic demand and adopting the proactive fiscal policy and the sound monetary policy in good time, we overcame the adverse effects the Asian financial crisis and world economic fluctuations had on China, and maintained a relatively rapid economic growth. The strategic adjustment of the economic structure has been crowned with success. The position of agriculture as the foundation of the economy has been strengthened. Traditional industries have been upgraded. High and new technology industries and modern services have gained speed. A large number of infrastructure projects in such areas as water conservancy, transportation, telecommunications, energy and environmental protection have been completed. Significant headway has been made in the large-scale development of China's western region. Economic returns have further improved. National revenue has kept growing. The Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was fulfilled and the Tenth Five-Year Plan has seen a good start.

Reform and opening up have yielded substantial results. The socialist market economy has taken shape initially. The public sector of the economy has expanded and steady progress has been made in the reform of state-owned enterprises. Self-employed or private enterprises and other non-public sectors of the economy have developed fairly fast. The work of building up the market system has been in full swing. The macro-control system has improved constantly. The pace of change in government functions has been quickened. Reform in finance, taxation, banking, distribution, housing, government institutions and other areas has continued to deepen. The open economy has developed swiftly. Trade in commodities and services and capital flow have grown markedly. China's foreign exchange reserves have risen considerably. With its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China has entered a new stage in its opening up.

Notable progress has been registered in improving socialist democracy and spiritual civilization. Continued efforts have been made to improve democracy and the legal system. New steps have been taken in political restructuring. The patriotic united front has grown stronger. Further progress has been made in the work relating to ethnic, religious and overseas Chinese affairs. Fresh progress has been made in keeping public order through comprehensive measures. Science, technology, education, culture, health, sports, family planning and other undertakings have moved ahead. The media and publicity work as well as ideological and moral education have kept improving. The people's cultural life has become increasingly rich and colorful.

New strides have been taken in strengthening national defense and army building. Efforts have been redoubled to make the People's Liberation Army more revolutionary, modernized and regularized. Our national defense capabilities and the army's defense and combat effectiveness have further improved. The army, the armed police and the militia have played an important role in defending and building up our motherland.

On the whole, the people have reached a well-off standard of living. The income of urban and rural residents has gone up steadily. The urban and rural markets have been brisk, and there has been an ample supply of goods. The quality of life of the residents has been on the rise, with considerable improvement in food, clothing, housing, transport and daily necessities. There has been marked progress in building the social security system. The seven-year program to help 80 million people out of poverty has been in the main fulfilled.

Fresh progress has been made in the great cause of national reunification. The Chinese Government has resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Macao. The principle of "one country, two systems" has been implemented and the basic laws of Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions have been carried out to the letter. Hong Kong and Macao enjoy social and economic stability. Personnel, economic and cultural exchanges across the Taiwan Straits have kept increasing. The fight against "Taiwan independence" and other attempts to split the country has been going on in depth.

New prospects have been opened up in our external work. In light of the developments and changes in the international situation, we have adhered to the correct foreign policy and related principles. We have carried out both bilateral and multilateral diplomatic activities extensively and taken an active part in international exchanges and cooperation. China's international standing has risen still further.

Party building has been strengthened in an all-round way. All the Party members have steadily intensified their study of Deng Xiaoping Theory. We have put forward and expounded the important thought of Three Represents. Good results have been produced in the intensive education in the need to stress study, political awareness and integrity and in the study of the "Three Represents". An all-out endeavor has been made to build up the Party ideologically, organizationally and in work style. Our ideological and political work has been strengthened. New steps have been taken in the reform of the personnel system. The endeavor to build a clean and honest government and combat corruption has been going on in depth and yielding fresh notable results.

Facts prove that the major policy decisions taken by the Central Committee at and since the Fifteenth National Congress are correct and accord with the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. Our achievements are the outcome of the united endeavor of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups of the country. They provide a more solid foundation for the future development of the cause of the Party and state.

We must be clearly aware that there are still quite a few difficulties and problems in our work. The income of farmers and some urban residents has increased only slowly. The number of the unemployed has gone up. Some people are still badly off. Things have yet to be straightened out in the matter of income distribution. The order of the market economy has to be further rectified and standardized. Public order is poor in some places. Formalism, the bureaucratic style of work, falsification, extravagance and waste are still serious problems among some leading cadres in our Party, and corruption is still conspicuous in some places. The Party's way of leadership and governance does not yet entirely meet the requirements of the new situation and new tasks. Some Party organizations are feeble and lax. We must pay close attention to these problems and continue to take effective measures to solve them.

Our achievements over the past five years have been scored through reform and opening up, especially through our practice since the Fourth Plenary Session of the Thirteenth Central Committee in 1989. These 13 years have witnessed a highly volatile international situation and a magnificent upsurge of China's reform, opening up and modernization. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, there occurred serious political disturbances in China, drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Socialism in the world suffered serious setbacks. China was faced with unprecedented difficulties and pressure in its efforts to develop the socialist cause. At this crucial historical juncture bearing on the destiny of the Party and state, the Party Central Committee relied firmly on all the comrades in the Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups and unswervingly adhered to the line prevailing since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, and thus successfully brought the overall situation of reform and development under control and safeguarded the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. After Comrade Deng Xiaoping made remarks on his tour of the South, the Fourteenth National Congress decided to establish a socialist market economy as the goal of reform, thus ushering in a new stage for reform, opening up and the modernization drive. To develop a market economy under socialism is a great pioneering undertaking never tried before in history. It is a historic contribution of the Chinese Communists to the development of Marxism. It has given expression to our Party's tremendous courage to persist in making theoretical innovation and keeping pace with the times. The shift from the planned economy to the socialist market economy represented a new historic breakthrough in reform and opening up and brought about entirely new prospects for China's economic, political and cultural progress. After the demise of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, we held high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and made pioneering efforts to advance the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21st century in an all-round way.

Over the past 13 years, with clearly defined objectives, we worked with one heart and one mind and scored historic achievements. In 2001, China's GDP reached 9.5933 trillion yuan, almost tripling that of 1989, representing an average annual increase of 9.3 percent. China came up to the sixth place in the world in terms of economic aggregate. On the whole, the people made a historic leap from having only adequate food and clothing to leading a well-off life. As is universally recognized, the 13 years have been a period in which China's overall national strength has risen by a big margin, the people have received more tangible benefits than ever before, and China has enjoyed long-term social stability and solidarity and had a good government and a united people. China's influence in the world has grown notably, and the cohesion of the nation has increased remarkably. The hard work of our Party and people and their great achievements have attracted worldwide attention and will surely go down as a glorious page in the annals of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

A review of these 13 years shows that we have traversed a tortuous course and that our achievements are hard won. We have responded confidently to a series of unexpected international events bearing on China's sovereignty and security. We have surmounted difficulties and risks arising from the political and economic spheres and from nature. We have gone through one trial after another and removed all kinds of obstacles, thus ensuring that our reform, opening up and modernization drive have been forging ahead in the correct direction like a ship braving surging waves. We have attained these successes by relying on the correct guidance of the Party's basic theory, line and program, on the high degree of unity and solidarity of the Party and on the tenacious work of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups around the country.

Here, on behalf of the CPC Central Committee, I wish to express our heartfelt thanks to the people of all our ethnic groups, the democratic parties, people's organizations and patriots from all walks of life, to our compatriots in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan as well as overseas Chinese, and to our foreign friends who care about and support China's modernization drive!

The practice of the 13 years has helped us acquire a deeper understanding of what socialism is, how to build it, and what kind of Party to build and how to build it, and we have gained most valuable experience in this regard.

1. Uphold Deng Xiaoping Theory as our guide and constantly bring forth theoretical innovation. Deng Xiaoping Theory is our banner, and the Party's basic line and program are the fundamental guidelines for every field of our work. Whatever difficulties and risks we may come up against, we must unswervingly abide by the Party's basic theory, line and program. We should persist in arming the entire Party membership with Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory and using them to educate our people. We should continue to emancipate our minds, seek truth from facts, keep pace with the times and make innovations in a pioneering spirit. We should respect the creativity of the general public and test and develop the Party's theory, line, principles and policies in practice.

2. Keep economic development as the central task and solve problems cropping up on our way forward through development. Development is the fundamental principle. We must seize all opportunities to accelerate development. Development calls for new ideas. We should stick to the principle of expanding domestic demand and implement the strategy of national rejuvenation through science and education and that of sustainable development. While seeking speed, we should pay attention to structure, quality and efficiency, and while propelling economic development, we should take into consideration population, resources and the environment. On the basis of economic growth, we need to promote all-round social progress, constantly better people's lives and ensure that all the people share the fruits of development.

3. Persevere in reform and opening up and keep improving the socialist market economy. Reform and opening up are ways to make China powerful. We must press ahead with the reform in all areas resolutely. The reform must be promoted realistically, comprehensively and progressively with breakthroughs made in key areas and emphasis placed on institutional improvement and innovation. We should follow the orientation of reform toward the socialist market economy and make sure that the market forces playan essential role in the allocation of resources under the state's macroeconomic control. By both "bringing in" and "going out", we should actively participate in international economic and technological cooperation and competition and open wider to the outside world.

4. Adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles (*Note 1) and develop socialist democracy. The Four Cardinal Principles are the very foundation on which we build our country. We must uphold leadership by the CPC and consolidate and improve the state system-a people's democratic dictatorship and the system of political power - the people's congresses. We should uphold and improve the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party and the system of regional ethnic autonomy. We should promote political restructuring, develop democracy, improve the legal system, rule the country by law, build a socialist state under the rule of law and ensure that the people exercise their rights as the masters of the country.

5. Attach equal importance to both material and spiritual civilization and run the country by combining the rule of law with the rule of virtue. Socialist spiritual civilization is an important attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Basing ourselves on China's realities, we must carry forward the fine tradition of our national culture and absorb the achievements of foreign cultures in building socialist spiritual civilization. We should unceasingly upgrade the ideological and ethical standards as well as the scientific and cultural qualities of the entire people so as to provide a strong motivation and intellectual support for the modernization drive.

6. Ensure stability as a principle of overriding importance and balance reform, development and stability. Stability is a prerequisite for reform and development. We should take into full consideration the momentum of reform, the speed of development and the sustainability of the general public. Continued improvement of people's lives must be regarded as an important link in balancing reform, development and stability. We should press ahead with reform and development amidst social stability and promote social stability through reform and development.

7. Persevere in the Party's absolute leadership over the army and take the road of fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics. The people's army is a staunch pillar of the people's democratic dictatorship. It should meet the general requirements of being qualified politically and competent militarily and having a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support, with a view to enabling itself to win battles and never degenerate, paying attention to strengthening itself through science and technology and building itself into a more revolutionary, modernized and regularized army. We must ensure that the army is forever loyal to the Party, socialism, the motherland and the people.

8. Continue to unite with all forces that can be united with and increase the cohesion of the Chinese nation. We should hold high the banners of patriotism and socialism, strengthen the great solidarity of the people of all ethnic groups, and consolidate and develop the broadest possible patriotic united front. We need to strengthen our solidarity with the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation. We should handle well the work relating to ethnic minorities, religions and overseas Chinese. We should adhere to the principle of "one country, two systems" and bring into full play every positive factor in a common endeavor to accomplish the grand cause of national reunification and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

9. Pursue the independent foreign policy of peace, safeguard world peace and promote common development. We will, as always, attach paramount importance to our state sovereignty and security. We will develop friendly relations and cooperation with all other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. We will oppose hegemonism and power politics and promote the establishment of a fair and rational new international political and economic order. In handling international affairs, we should observe and cope with the situation cool-headedly, adhere to the principle of mutual respect and seek common ground while shelving differences. We need to respect the diversity of the world, promote democracy in international relations and strive for a peaceful international environment and a good climate in areas around China.

10. Strengthen and improve the Party's leadership and propel the new great project of Party building. To run the state well, we must run the Party well first. To do this, we must be strict with the Party members. We must maintain the Party's nature and purposes, strengthen and improve Party building in the spirit of reform, enhance the Party's art of leadership and governance, increase its capability of fighting corruption and guarding against degeneration and risks and make unremitting efforts to combat corruption. The Party must keep its flesh-and-blood ties with the people as well as its progressiveness, purity, solidarity and unity.

The above-mentioned ten principles constitute the basic experience the Party must follow as it leads the people in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. This experience and the historical experience gained by the Party since its founding can be summarized as follows: Our Party must always represent the development trend of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. They are the inexorable requirements for maintaining and developing socialism and the logical conclusion our Party has reached through hard exploration and great practice.