On July l6, 2001, President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China and
President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation signed the ?Treaty of
Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of
China and the Russian Federation? in Moscow. Full text of the Treaty is as
Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation between the People's
Republic of China and the Russian Federation
The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereafter known as
the contracting parties),
In view of the historical tradition of good-neighborliness and friendship
between the people of China and Russia,
Hold that the Sino-Russian Joint Declarations and Statements signed and
adopted by the heads of states of the two countries from 1992 to 2000 which are
of great significance to the development of bilateral relations,
Firmly believe that to consolidate the friendly and good neighborly ties and
mutual cooperation in all fields between the two countries is in conformity with
the fundamental interests of the peoples of the two countries and conducive to
the maintenance of peace, security and stability in Asia and the world,
Reiterate the obligations committed by each party in accordance with the
Charter of the United Nations and other international treaties of which it is a
With the hope of promoting and establishing a just and fair new world order
based on universally recognized principles and norms of international laws,
Endeavor to enhance relations between the two countries to a completely new
level, Determined to develop the friendship between the people of the two
countries from generation to generation,
Have reached agreement as follows:
In accordance with universally recognized principles and norms of
international laws and on the basis of the Five Principles of mutual respect of
state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, mutual
non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit
and peaceful co-existence, the contracting parties shall develops the strategic
cooperative partnership of good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation and
equality and trust between the two countries from a long-term view and in a
In handling their mutual relations, the contracting parties will neither
resort to the use of force ;or the threat of force nor take economic and other
means to bring pressure to bear against the other. The contracting parties will
only solve their differences through peaceful means by adhering to the
provisions of the "United Nations Charter" and the principles and norms of
universally recognized international laws.
The contracting parties reaffirm their commitment that they will not be the
first to use nuclear weapons against each other nor target strategic nuclear
missiles against each other.
The contracting parties respect each other's choice for the course of
political, economic, social and cultural development in line with their nation's
actual conditions so as to ensure a long-term and stable development of
relations between the two countries.
The Chinese side supports the Russian side in its policies on the issue of
defending the national unity and territorial integrity of the Russian
The Russian side supports the Chinese side in its policies on the issue of
defending the national unity and territorial integrity of the People's Republic
The Russian side reaffirms that the principled stand on the Taiwan issue as
expounded in the political documents signed and adopted by the heads of states
of the two countries from 1992 to 2000 remain unchanged. The Russian side
acknowledges that there is only one China in the world, that the People's
Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China
and that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China. The Russian side opposes any
form of Taiwan's independence.
The contracting parties point out with satisfaction that each has no
territorial claim on the other and both are resolved to make active efforts in
building the border between the two countries into one where ever-lasting peace
and friendship prevail. The contracting parties will adhere to the principles of
non-encroachment upon territories and national boundaries as stipulated in
international laws and strictly observe the national boundary between the two
The contracting parties shall continue to hold talks on the pending boundary
alignment of the sectors which China and Russia have not yet arrived at an
agreement through consultations. Prior to the settlement of these issues, the
two sides will maintain the status quo in such boundary sectors.
In accordance with the current agreements, the contracting parties shall
adopt measures to increase trust between their militaries and reduce military
forces in the border areas. The contracting parties shall expand and deepen
confidence building measures in the military field so as to consolidate each
other?s security and strengthen regional and international stability.
The contracting parties shall make efforts to ensure its own national
security in accordance with the principle of maintaining reasonable and adequate
weapons and armed forces.
The military and military technology cooperation of the contracting parties
carried out in accordance with the relevant agreements are not directed at third
The contracting parties shall not enter into any alliance or be a party to
any bloc nor shall they embark on any such action, including the conclusion of
such treaty with a third country which compromises the sovereignty, security and
territorial integrity of the other contracting party. Neither side of the
contracting parties shall allow its territory to be used by a third country to
jeopardize the national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the
other contracting party.
Neither side of the contracting parties shall allow the setting up of
organizations or gangs on its own soil which shall impair the sovereignty,
security and territorial integrity of the other contrasting party and their
activities should be prohibited.
When a situation arises in which one of the contracting parties deems that
peace is being threatened and undermined or its security interests are involved
or when it is confronted with the threat of aggression, the contracting parties
shall immediately hold contacts and consultations in order to eliminate such
The contracting parties shall employ and perfect the mechanism for regular
meetings at all levels, above all the summit and high-level meetings, to conduct
periodic exchanges of views and co-ordinate their stand on bilateral ties and on
important and urgent international issues of common concern so as to reinforce
the strategic cooperative partnership of equality and trust.
The contracting parties stand for the strict observation of universally
acknowledged principles and norms of international laws and oppose any action of
resorting to the use of force to bring pressure to bear on others or interfering
in the internal affairs of a sovereign state under all sorts of pretexts and
both are ready to make positive efforts to strengthen peace, stability,
development and cooperation throughout the world.
The contracting parties are against any action which may constitute a threat
to international stability, security and peace and will conduct mutual
co-ordination with regard to the prevention of international conflicts and
bringing about their political settlement.
The contracting parties shall work together for the maintenance of global
strategic balance and stability and make great efforts in promoting the
observation of the basic agreements relevant to the safeguard and maintenance of
The contracting parties shall actively promote the process of nuclear
disarmament and the reduction of chemical weapons, promote and strengthen the
regimes on the prohibition of biological weapons and take measures to prevent
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery and
their related technology.
The contracting parties shall strengthen their cooperation in the United
Nations and its Security Council as well as other United Nations Special
Agencies. The contracting parties shall work to reinforce the central role of
the United Nations as the most authoritative and most universal world
organization composed of sovereign states in handling international affairs,
particularly in the realm of peace and development and guarantee the major
responsibility of the UN Security Council in the area of maintaining
international peace and security.
The contracting parties shall energetically promote the consolidation of
stability of the surrounding areas of the two countries, create an atmosphere of
mutual understanding, trust and cooperation, and promote efforts aimed at
setting up a multi-lateral co-ordination mechanism which complies with the
actual situation of the above-mentioned areas on issues of security and
In accordance with the two countries' inter-governmental agreements concerned
and other documents relating to the handling of creditor's rights and
liabilities, each side of the contracting parties recognizes the lawful right of
ownership of the assets and other properties which belong to the other side and
which are located within the territory of the other contracting party.
On the basis of mutual benefit, the contracting parties shall conduct
cooperation in such areas as economy and trade, military know-how, science and
technology, energy resources, transport, nuclear energy, finance, aerospace and
aviation, information technology and other areas of common interest. They shall
promote economic and trade cooperation in border areas and local regions between
the two countries and create necessary and favorable conditions in this regard
in accordance with the laws of each country.
The contracting parties shall energetically enhance and develop exchanges and
cooperation in culture, education, health, information, tourism, sports and
In accordance with their national laws and international treaties of which
they are a party, the contracting parties shall protect and maintain
intellectual property rights, including copyright and other relevant rights.
The contracting parties shall conduct cooperation in world financial
institutions, economic organizations and forums, and in line with the rules and
regulations of the above-mentioned institutions, organizations and forums, make
efforts to promote the participation of a contracting party in the
above-mentioned institutions of which the other contracting party is already a
member (or member state).
The contracting parties shall cooperate in promoting the realization of human
rights and fundamental freedom in accordance with the international obligations
each is committed and the national laws of each country.
In line with the international obligations each of the contracting parties is
committed and the laws and regulations of each country, the contracting party
shall take effective measures to guarantee the legal rights and interests of
legal persons and natural persons of the other contracting party who reside
within its territory, and provide the necessary legal assistance over civil and
The departments concerned of the contracting parties, in accordance with
relevant laws, shall conduct investigation and seek a solution to the problems
and disputes arising from the process of carrying out cooperation and business
activities by the legal persons and natural persons within the territory of the
other side of the contracting parties.
The contracting parties shall carry out cooperation in the protection and
improvement of the environment, prevention of cross-border pollution, the fair
and rational use of water resources along the border areas and the use of
biological resources in the northern Pacific and boundary river areas; make
joint efforts in protecting rare floras, faunas and the natural ecosystem, and
conduct cooperation in preventing the outbreak of major accidents arising from
natural disasters or due to technical reasons and eliminating their
The contracting parties, in accordance with the laws of each country and the
international obligation each has committed, shall actively cooperate in
cracking down terrorists, splittists and extremists, and in taking strong
measures against criminal activities of organized crimes, illegal trafficking of
drugs, psychotropic substances and weapons. The contracting parties shall
conduct cooperation to crack down on illegal immigration, including the crack
down on illegal transportation of natural persons via its territory.
The contracting parties attach great importance to the exchanges and
cooperation between the central (federal) legislative organs and law enforcement
agencies of the two countries.
The contracting parties shall promote with great efforts the exchanges and
cooperation between the judicial organs of the two countries.
This Treaty neither affects the rights and obligations of the contracting
parties in other international treaties of which they are a party to it, nor is
it directed against any third country.
To implement the present Treaty, the contracting parties shall actively
promote the signing of accords in specific realms which are of interests to both
This Treaty needs to be ratified and shall come into force from the date of
the exchange of instruments of ratification. The exchange of instruments of
ratification shall take place in Beijing.
The term of validity of the present treaty is twenty years. If neither side
of the contracting parties notify the other in writing of its desire to
terminate the treaty one year before the treaty expires, the treaty shall
automatically be extended for another five years and shall thereafter be
continued in force in accordance with this provision.
Done in Moscow on July 16, 2001 in two copies, each in the Chinese and
Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.
Representative of the People's Republic of China
Representative of the Russian Federation